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Several components used for EVs but notably Lithium-ion batteries offer a large potential for a circular economy of the materials involved.  They can often be re-used for other, mostly stationary, applications and at the end of life valuable materials can be recovered.

Task 40 CRM4EV will look specifically at the potential of recycling – after a second life or directly – of the CRMs from Lithium-ion batteries.

An analysis will be made of the existing and future recycling processes, the materials recovery rates of the different processes as well as the environmental impacts compared to the use of virgin raw materials. Recycling and re-use of Lithium-ion batteries can contribute also as an alternative source of raw materials, scenarios of the relevance of this (local!) source in the future will be made. Several of the Task 40 participants are global, scientific and industrial, experts in the field. 

For Rare Earths from Permanent Magnets, recycling processes will be reviewed as well, both from an environmental impact as a secondary source of materials point of view.